Anguttara Nikaya


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Aŋguttara-Nikāya
III. Tikanipāta
VII. Mahā Vagga

The Book of the
Gradual Sayings
or
More-Numbered Suttas

Part III
The Book of the Threes

Chapter VII
The Great Chapter

Sutta 65

Those of Kesaputta

Translated from the Pali by
F.L. Woodward, M.A.

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
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[188] [170]

[1][than][soma][bodh]THUS have I heard:

On a certain occasion the Exalted One,
while going his rounds among the Kosalans
with a great [171] company of monks, came to Kesaputta,[1] a district of the Kosalans.

Now the Kālāmas of Kesaputta heard it said that Gotama the recluse,
the Sakyans' son who went forth as a wanderer from the Sakyan clan,
had reached Kesaputta.

And this good report was noised abroad about Gotama, that Exalted One, thus:

He it is, the Exalted One,
Arahant,
a Fully Enlightened One,
perfect in knowledge and practice,
Wellfarer,
world-knower,
unsurpassed charioteer of men to be tamed,
teacher of devas and mankind,
a Buddha,
an Exalted One.[2]

It were indeed a good thing to get sight of such arahants!

So the Kālāmas of Kesaputta came to see the Exalted One.

On reaching him, some saluted the Exalted One and sat down at one side:
some greeted the Exalted One courteously,
and after the exchange of greetings and courtesies
sat down at one side:
some raising their joined palms to the Exalted One
sat down at one side:
some proclaimed their name and clan
and did likewise;
while others without saying anything
just sat down at one side.

Then as they thus sat
the Kālāmas of Kesaputta said this to the Exalted One:

2. 'Sir, certain recluses and brahmins come to Kesaputta.

As to their own view,
they proclaim and expound it in full:
but as to the view of others,
they abuse it,
revile it,
depreciate
and cripple it.[3]

Moreover, sir, other recluses and brahmins,
on coming to Kesaputta,
do likewise.

When we listen to them, sir,
we have doubt and wavering
as to which of these worthies is speaking truth
and which speaks falsehood.'

3. 'Yes, Kālāmas, you may well doubt,
you may well waver.

In a doubtful matter wavering does arise.

Now look you, Kālāmas. Be ye not misled by report[4]
or tradition
or hearsay.

Be not misled by proficiency in the [172] collections,[5]
nor by mere logic or inference,
nor after considering reasons,
nor after reflection on and approval of some theory,
nor because it fits becoming,[6]
nor out of respect for a recluse (who bolds it).

But, Kālāmas, when you know for yourselves:

These things are unprofitable,
these things are blameworthy,
these things are censured by the intelligent;
these things, when performed and undertaken,
conduce to loss and sorrow, -

then indeed do ye reject them, Kālāmas.

4. Now what think ye, Kālāmas?

When greed arises within a man,
does it arise to his profit or to his loss?

'To his loss, sir.'

'Now, Kālāmas, does not this man, thus become greedy,
being overcome by greed
and losing control of his mind, -
does he not kill a living creature,
take what is not given,
go after another's wife,
tell lies
and lead another into such a state[7]
as causes[8] his loss and sorrow for a long time?

'He does, sir.'

5. 'Now what think ye, Kālāmas?

When malice arises within a man,
does it arise to his profit or to his loss?

'To his loss, sir.'

'Now, Kālāmas, does not this man, thus become malicious,
being overcome by malice
and losing control of his mind, -
does he not kill a living creature,
take what is not given,
go after another's wife,
tell lies
and lead another into such a state
as causes his loss and sorrow for a long time?

'He does, indeed, sir.'

6. 'Now what think ye, Kālāmas?

When illusion arises within a man,
does it arise to his profit or to his loss?

'To his loss, sir.'

'And does not this man, thus deluded,
being overcome by delusion
and losing control of his mind, -
does he not kill a living creature,
take what is not given,
go after another's wife,
tell lies
and lead another into such a state
as causes his loss and sorrow for a long time?

'He does, sir.'

7. 'Well then, Kālāmas, what think ye?

Are these things profitable or unprofitable?'

'Unprofitable, sir.'

'Are they blameworthy or not?'

'Blameworthy, sir.'

'Are they censured by the intelligent or not?'

'They are censured, sir.'

'If performed and undertaken,
do they conduce to loss and sorrow or not?'

'They conduce to loss and sorrow, sir.

It is just so, me-thinks.'[9]

8. 'So then, Kālāmas, as to my words to you just now:

"Be ye not misled by report or tradition or hearsay.

Be not misled by proficiency in the collections,
nor by mere logic or inference,
nor after considering reasons,
nor after reflection on and approval of some theory,
nor because it fits becoming,
nor out of respect for a recluse (who holds it).

But, Kālāmas, when you know for yourselves:

These things are unprofitable,
these things are blameworthy,
these things are censured by the intelligent,
these things, when performed and undertaken,
conduce to loss and sorrow, -
then indeed do ye reject them,"

such was my reason for uttering those words.

9. Come now, Kālāmas, be ye not by report or tradition or hearsay.

Be not misled by proficiency in the collections,
nor by mere logic or inference,
nor after considering reasons,
nor after reflection on and approval of some theory,
nor because it fits becoming,
nor out of respect for a recluse (who holds it).

But if at any time ye know of yourselves:

These things are profitable,
they are blameless,
they are praised by the intelligent:
these things, when performed and undertaken,
conduce to profit and happiness, -

then, Kālāmas, do ye, having undertaken them
abide therein.

10. Now what think ye, Kālāmas?

When freedom from greed arises in a man,
does it arise to his profit or his loss?'

'To his profit, sir.'

'Does not this man,
not being greedy,
not overcome by greed,
having his mind under control, -
does he not cease to slay a living creature,
does he not cease to take what is not given,
does he not cease to go after another's wife,
does he not cease to tell lies
does he not cease to mislead another
[174] into a state that shall be to his loss and sorrow for a long time?

'He does, sir.'

11. 'Now what think ye, Kālāmas?

When freedom from malice arises within a man,
does it arise to his profit or his loss?

'To his profit, sir.'

'Does not this man,
not being malicious,
not being overcome by malice,
but having his mind under control, -
does he not cease to slay a living creature,
does he not cease to take what is not given,
does he not cease to go after another's wife,
does he not cease to tell lies
does he not cease to mislead another
into a state that shall be to his loss and sorrow for a long time?

'He does, sir.'

12. 'Now what think ye, Kālāmas?

When freedom from illusion arises within a man,
does it arise to his profit or his loss?

'To his profit, sir.'

'Does not this man,
not being deluded,
not being overcome by delusion,
but having his mind under control, -
does he not cease to slay a living creature,
does he not cease to take what is not given,
does he not cease to go after another's wife,
does he not cease to tell lies
does he not cease to mislead another
into a state that shall be to his loss and sorrow for a long time?

'Yes, sir.'

13. 'Then, Kālāmas, what think ye?

Are these things profitable or unprofitable?'

'Profitable, sir.'

'Are they blameworthy or not?'

'They are not, sir.'

'Are they censured or praised by the intelligent?

'They are praised, sir.'

'When performed and undertaken,
do they conduce to happiness or not?'

'They do conduce to happiness, sir.

It is just so, methinks.'

14. 'So then, Kālāmas, as to my words to you just now:

Be not misled by proficiency in the collections,
nor by mere logic or inference,
nor after considering reasons,
nor after reflection on and approval of some theory,
nor because it fits becoming,
nor out of respect for a recluse (who holds it).

But, Kālāmas, when you know for yourselves:

These things are profitable,
they are blameless,
they are praised by the intelligent:
these things, when performed and undertaken,
conduce to profit and happiness, -

then, Kālāmas, do ye, having undertaken them
abide therein.

such was my reason for uttering those words.

15. Now, Kālāmas, he who is an Ariyan disciple
freed from coveting and malevolence,
who is not bewildered but self-controlled and mindful,
with a heart possessed by goodwill,
with a heart possessed by compassion,
with a heart possessed by sympathy,
with a heart possessed by equanimity
(that is widespread, grown great and boundless,
free from enmity and oppression), -
such an one abides suffusing one quarter of the world therewith,
bkewise the second,
third [175] and fourth quarter of the world.[10]

And in like manner above,
below,
across,
everywhere,
for all sorts and conditions,
he abides suffusing the whole world
with a heart possessed by goodwill,
with a heart possessed by compassion,
with a heart possessed by sympathy,
with a heart possessed by equanimity
that is widespread, grown great and boundless,
free from enmity and oppression.

By that Ariyan disciple whose heart is thus free from enmity,
free from oppression,
untainted and made pure,
by such in this very life four comforts[11] are attained, thus:

16. "If "there be a world beyond,
if there be fruit and ripening of deeds done well or ill,
then, when body breaks up after death,
I shall be reborn in the Happy Lot,
in the Heaven World."

This is the first comfort he attains.

"If, however, there be no world beyond,
no fruit and ripening of deeds[12] done well or ill,
yet in this very life do I hold myself free from enmity and oppression,
sorrowless and well."[13]

This is the second comfort he attains.

"Though, as result of action,[14] ill be done by me,
yet do I plan no ill to anyone.

And if I do no ill,
how can sorrow touch me?"

This is the third comfort he attains.

"But if, as result of action,
no ill be done by me,
then in both ways[15] do I behold myself utterly pure."

This is the fourth comfort he attains.

Thus, Kālāmas, that Ariyan disciple whose heart is free from enmity,
free from oppression,
untainted and made pure,
in this very life
attains these four comforts.'

17. 'So it is, Exalted One.

So it is, Wellfarer.

That Ariyan disciple whose heart is free from enmity,
free from oppression,
untainted and made pure,
in this very life
attains these four comforts:[16]

"If "there be a world beyond,
if there be fruit and ripening of deeds done well or ill,
then, when body breaks up after death,
I shall be reborn in the Happy Lot,
in the Heaven World."

This is the first comfort he attains.

"If, however, there be no world beyond,
no fruit and ripening of deeds done well or ill,
yet in this very life do I hold myself free from enmity and oppression,
sorrowless and well."

This is the second comfort he attains.

"Though, as result of action, ill be done by me,
yet do I plan no ill to anyone.

And if I do no ill,
how can sorrow touch me?"

This is the third comfort he attains.

"But if, as result of action,
no ill be done by me,
then in both ways do I behold myself utterly pure."

This is the fourth comfort he attains.

Excellent, sir!

We here do go for refuge to the Exalted One,
to Dhamma
and to the Order of Monks.

May the Exalted One accept us as lay-followers from this day forth
so long as life shall last,
who have so taken refuge.'

 


[1] I have not met this name elsewhere.

[2] Cf. supra, text 180.

[3] Opakkhiŋ karoti, lit. deprive it of its wings. Text and Comy. opapakkhiŋ.

[4] Cf. A. ii, 191, where the same advice is given to Bhaddiya of the Licchavī; also S. ii, 115; Nidd.2, Ī 151; Gotama the Man, 274.

[5] Piţaka-sampādanena, gen. trans. 'on the authority of the Scriptures,' probably not yet written down, but memorialized and constantly added to. Comy. piţaka-tantiyā.

[6] Bhavya-rūpatāya. Comy. takes it as bhabba-.

[7] Tathattāya samādapeti.

[8] Text yaŋ sa hoti. This, says Comy., -yam assa hoti (yaŋ kāranaŋ tasaa puggalasaa hoti).

[9] This second no is ethic dative: the first is negative.

[10] For these Four 'Sublime Moods' cf. supra, text 183; K.S. v, 98 n.

[11] Assāsa, lit. 'quiet breathing.' Cf. K.S. iv, 172.

[12] Dhammānaŋ, ? to read kammānaŋ as before.

[13] Text sukhiŋ. Comy. sukhaŋ = sukhitaŋ.

[14] Karoto.

'whether inadvertently or intentionally' this could be misleading. What he is speaking about is the inadvertent harm that might be done doing a deed either inadvertently or intentionally. Where there is no intent to harm, as is indicated by the context, there is no bad kamma as a result, even if there is inadvertently, harm done. There is bad kamma done with any deed done with the intent to harm.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[15] I.e., whether inadvertently or intentionally.

[16] Text 190 should read sukata in 1. 2 for sakata-.


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